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Introduction info

Open genome list


Senna tora (L.) Roxb. (Cassia tora), a member of Leguminosae (subfamily Caesalpinoideae), is a semi-wild annual herb widely grown in different places of toropical and subtropical weather  all around the World ( S. tora is a rich resource of anthraquinones, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. So, seeds are extensively used for medicinal applications in gastrointestinal disorders, treatment of skin, and ailments ranging from simple cough, hypertension to diabetes. Despite of its useful applications, there has been little report of molecular and genomic studies of S. tora. To elucidate genes responsible for biosynthesis of anthraquinone in S. tora, the genome project has initiated through the National Agricultural Genome Program (NGAP) and National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS) Program.



Genome v1.0 (NGAP: 2014.04.01 ~ 2017.12.31)

Approximately 525.3 Mb is assembled in 16,931contigs

Approximately 526.5 Mb is assembled in 4,513 scaffolds

Contig N50 = 250 kb, Longest contig = 1.32 Mb

Scaffold N50 = 2.70 Mb, Longest scaffold = 14.2 Mb

Loci v1.0 (NGAP: 2014.04.01 ~ 2017.12.31)

41,984 protein-coding genes have been predicted


Genome v2.0 (NAS Program: 2018.03.01 ~ 2020.12.31)

Approximately 502 Mb is assembled in 13 chromosomes, with 23.8 Mb of sequence in unmapped scaffolds

Approximately 526.4 Mb arranged in 732 contigs

Scaffold N50 = 41.7 Mb, Longest scaffold = 52.7 Mb

Contig N50 = 4.03 Mb, Longest contig = 14.9 Mb

Loci v2.0 (NAS Program: 2018.03.01 ~ 2020.12.31)

45,268 protein-coding genes have been predicted


Organelle genomes

The complete chloroplast genome of S. tora is 162,426 bp in size (Accession no. NC030193). The chloroplast genome harbors 110 annotated genes, including 77 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. tora is 566,589 bp in length (Accession no. MF358693). A total of 63 genes are annotated including 36 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 5 rRNA genes.



Sang-Ho Kang (



Sang-Ho Kang, So Youn Won and Chang-Kug Kim (2019) The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Senna tora (Fabales: Fabaceae). Mitochondrial DNA Part B 4, 1283-1284.

Sang-Ho Kang*, Hyun Oh Lee, Chang-Kug Kim, Saemin Chang, Ji-Nam Kang, Si-Myung Lee

(2020) The complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plants, Senna tora and Senna occidentalis species. Mitochondrial DNA Part B 5, 1673-1674. (*corresponding author)


Sang-Ho Kang*, Woo-Haeng Lee, Chang-Muk Lee, Joon-Soo Sim, So Youn Won, S-Ra Han, Soo-Jin Kwon, Jung Sun Kim, Chang-Kug Kim*, Tae-Jin Oh* (2020) De novo transcriptome sequence of Senna tora provides insights into anthraquinone biosynthesis. PLoS One (In Press) (*corresponding author).


Sang-Ho Kang*, Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Chang-Muk Lee, Joon-Soo Sim, Jin-Tae Jeong, Beom-Soon Choi, Myunghee Jung, So Youn Won, Tae-Jin Oh, Yeisoo Yu, Nam-Hoon Kim, Ok Ran Lee, Tae-Ho Lee, Puspalata Bashyal, Tae-Su Kim, Chang-Kug Kim, Jung Sun Kim, Byoung Ohg Ahn,Seung Y. Rhee*, Jae Kyung Sohng* (2020) Genome-Enabled Discovery of Anthraquinone Biosynthesis in Senna tora. (Submitted) (*corresponding author)

Open genome list